Monthly Report – August 2014


Projects Abroad Human Rights Office, Cape Town

The month of August brought charm and cheer specifically to women as this has come to be recognised as Women’s month across South Africa. This month rose to significance as a result of Women’s Day which falls on the 9th of August. On this day in 1956, about 50,000women marched to the Union Building in Pretoria, in protest against the 1950 pass laws effected by the Apartheid regime. From this a common theme developed that has become a slogan that is a hallmark to the strength of women “Wathint'Abafazi Wathint'imbokodo!” you strike a woman you strike a rock!

Different organisations maximised this time to highlight different challenges still faced by women, 20 years after democracy. At PAHRO we took time plan our annual Women’s Day High Tea which we hosted at our office on the 8th of August.

Our volunteer number remained quite high this winter and finally dwindled down the last week of August with most heading back home to prepare for University or a new season in the job search or employment.

Our client numbers were surprisingly very high, which was great as for the first time all our volunteers were able to participate in initial consultations and learn how to open cases and determine merits of cases from the onset. Our growth in client numbers is an indication that PAHRO has gained more recognition for the work we do and have been found dependable and reliable. In addition, this year, the UNHCR invited our office to participate in a refugee protection assessment workshop held on the 14th and 15th of August.

Social Justice Projects Updates

Vredelus house

Workshop one: Substance Abuse

Along with peer pressure, there are several other major factors that can influence the abuse of drugs among youths, namely weak parental control, child abuse, imitation, emotional stress, truancy among students, the availability of the drugs and the ineffectiveness of laws on drug trafficking.

We therefore decided to do a presentation on substance abuse as 99% of the girls at Vredelus has experimented or been addicted to one or more substances.

The interns did research on the most common types of substance abuse in South Africa, how substance abuse affects your body, mental health and future.

What a lot of the girls did not know was that substance abuse is associated with both violent and income generating crimes by youths. Gangs, trafficking, prostitution and growing numbers of youth homicides are among the social and criminal justice problems often linked to adolescent substance abuse.

At the end of the presentation the girls learned more about drugs and how nothing good will come of experimenting with substances.

The girls were very interested in learning and were open to discuss what they have experimented with and how they would have made different choices if they had known how drugs would have impacted their lives.

Workshop two – Women’s Day

We started off this workshop by showing the girls three videos:

Video 1 – Always’ “#LikeAGirl”,

This video looked at the phrase “like a girl”. In the video young women are asked to throw “like a girl” run like a girl” amongst other activities. The same request is made of pre pubescent girls. One notes that the post puberty young women view s the term like a girl as a negative connotation and grows up see the term you do this “like a girl” as an insult. Whereas the prepubescent girl views the term “like a girl” to mean be yourself as when asked to run like a girl or throw like a girl it meant to what you can to the best of your ability. It is noted that something happens to a girl during puberty that makes her think less of herself and view anything “like a girl as being negative”. The purpose of showing this video was to make the young girls aware that there is nothing wrong with doing activities “like a girl” because they are girls and they should be proud of who they are and put their minds to making the most of every opportunity to the best of their ability.

Video 2 – Colbie Caillat’s music video of the song “Try”, which is about “you not having to try so hard to fit in”.

The video shows images of young women, with hair extensions, excessive make up false eyelashes all trying to fit into the stereotype of beauty as defined in mainstream media. Once again we wanted the girls minds to ask themselves: how much have they altered of themselves in order to “look right” or feel right” or be part of the in or right crowd? How much have they lost of themselves in trying?

Video 3 – Dove’s “Real Beauty Sketches”.

In this video an FBI sketch artist asked sat behind a screen and asked women to give two descriptions one of themselves and the other of the women they had just gotten to know before they came into the sketch room to consult with him. The sketch artist did not get to see any of the ladies before hand and relied totally on what they described. The whole exercise required women who were strangers to one another; they were introduced and asked to get to know one specific lady whom they later had to describe. At the time they got to know the lady they did not know it was for the purpose of a sketch. In the end the sketch artist allowed the women to compare the sketch he made of them based on their description and the sketch that was drawn based on another ladies description of them. The results were amazing. There is a stark contrast between how we view ourselves and how other people view us. We seem to focus on what we consider flaws and make them look worse than they actually are or create a flaw where there is none at all.

Once again we wanted the girls to appreciate themselves and love themselves as they are.

The girls’ response to the videos as noted from the ensuing discussion was very rewarding.

Workshop three – Gender Stereotypes

In general, all racial and ethnic groups in South Africa have long-standing beliefs concerning gender roles, and most are based on the premise that women in South Africa are less important, or less deserving of power, than men.

Interns did research on the different gender stereotypes, myths and facts, as well as ways in which we can present this topic in an interesting and educating manner.

We started the presentation by asking questions such as “What is gender stereotyping?”, “What do you believe about gender stereotyping?” and “Which ones do you think are false?”

Many of the girls did not know what the word means, however once we explained what it is, some of the girls were able to answer the questions we had asked. Some of the answers we received included “Women are here to serve men”, “Men are the protectors”, “A woman should know her place”, “A woman is for a man and a man is for a woman”, and “Men are stronger and can do more than women can do”. Once we heard the answers we were glad that we chose this topic as we wanted to change the girls’ ways of thinking and their belief that men and women are not equal.

In this workshop we presented the myths and facts of gender stereotyping, and we could see by the girls facial reactions that they were fascinated by what we were telling them.

Our main aim was to build the girls’ knowledge and understanding of gender stereotyping, as well as for the girls to consider the social inequalities people face in everyday situations.

In the future we will be doing this workshop again as it is important for everyone to learn about gender stereotyping and for everyone to move away from a gendered style of thinking.

Workshop four – Food Hygiene

Little is known about food hygiene. This is has been evident to us from the various organisations we have interacted with.

We decided to do a workshop on this to educate the boys and girls from Bonnytoun, Vredelus and Ottery. It is imperative for them to know the basics of hygiene in order to protect themselves from germs.

The interns gathered information about food hygiene, including the importance thereof, the myths and facts, quick tips for good food hygiene and what happens when you are not hygienic.

We were not sure how this topic was going to be received however we were encouraged by the host of questions that were asked by the girls thereafter.

Bonnytoun

Workshop one: Substance Abuse

We did the same workshop that was done at Vredelus.

During this workshop we could see that a lot of the boys were amazed by the facts that we presented as one of the boys even stated that, when experimenting with drugs, they never thought about the negative side effects as they were not told about it, but that drugs was advertised as “a feel good” substance to them.

This workshop went well as the boys were able to learn a lot about drugs and were now able to education others about the negative implications of using it.

We will be doing more workshops on substance abuse at Bonnytoun, with the different dorms as we hope that the boys will think twice before experimenting with drugs again.

Workshop two – Women’s Day

We showed the same videos that we did at Vredelus Huis. This was done with a slightly different spin as we were presenting to boys.

We asked them what they meant when they said the phrase “like a girl” and how they thought it impacted girls in their homes or their friends when they made such comments. We wanted to get them thinking about their role in developing a young girl’s self esteem and taught them how certain words or even phrases “like a girl” could end up having long lasting negative effects on a girl.

We wanted the boys to understand that they have a huge responsibility towards women their communities and they should take this responsibility seriously. The first step to take would be for them as young men to see the best in the women around them and in turn make it a point to mention this to them.

Workshop three – Gender Stereotypes

This was the same as the previous workshops done.

This workshop was a bit difficult to present as the boys were firm in their beliefs that men are superior to women.

However we proceeded with our presentation, using examples that would relate to their lives, such as their mother may have been more courageous than their father as she raised her children on her own, their mother having been the protector, standing by her son while he is in a juvenile detention facility.

When we made examples, the boys seem dumb struck as they did not make any snide remarks and agreed that women can be stronger than men, however gender stereotyping them would be wrong as making assumptions makes an “ass our of you and me”.

Workshop four – Food Hygiene

This was the same workshop which was presented at Vredelus and Ottery.

The boys were responsive, and also requested to learn more about hygiene in general as well as learning on how they could build muscle mass.

Ottery Youth Care

Workshop One – Substance Abuse

This was the same workshop which was done at Bonnytoun and Vredelus.

The boys asked questions, as well as told us about their experiences with drugs and alcohol.

Workshop Two – Countries

We did this workshop last month at Bonnytoun.

The interns prepared a three minute slide show presentation on their home countries; their traditions, food, music, famous tourist locations, well known artists and sports.

The boys were very interested and, because this was an interactive presentation, they asked questions and told us what they know about the respective countries. So this was an interesting and fun workshop for both the interns and the boys of Ottery.

Workshop Three – Gangsterism

There is a prevalent gang culture in Cape Town, mainly in the communities living on the Cape Flats. The gangs often appear to be an attractive and prestigious option for youth. The focus of this workshop is to help the boys understand what needs they seek to fulfil by joining a gang, such as a sense of belonging, as well as the negative aspects of being a member of a gang. We also wanted to show the relationship between gangs and drugs and the detrimental effect both have on people.

The volunteers undertook research about various notable gangs in the Cape Flats. The talked to their host families to get an understanding of how gang culture has affected the communities they live in and they talked to various people who come from gang riddled areas.

Many of the boys were already aware of the consequences of being in a gang and using or selling drugs, as quite a few were detained for this reason. However, they had not really explored the real reason behind them joining gangs. We hoped to get them thinking about the underlying factors that led them to joining.

Workshop Four – Food Hygiene

This was the same workshop done as at Vredelus and Bonnytoun.

Similar to the boys at Bonnytoun, the boys at Ottery requested to learn more about hygiene in general, especially ways in which they can tone their body.

Women’s Shelters

Sisters Incorporated

Workshop One – Cancelled Workshop

The workshop was cancelled as there was only one lady present at the shelter. As the volunteers were not informed of this in advance and were already at the shelter, made the most of their morning helping out in the crèche!

Workshop Two – Prisons and Rehabilitation

We decided to discuss the prison conditions in South Africa, and whether they are effective at rehabilitating convicts. Issues such as severe over-crowding, lack of health care and gang membership within the prison were discussed. The rehabilitative potential was contrasted with facilities in the volunteers’ home countries, and the ladies were very surprised to hear of the luxuries afforded to some of the convicts in Europe and America. The topic was very interesting for both the ladies and the volunteers, so much so that they spent the entire two hours engaged in conversation.

Workshop Three – Numbers Gangs

Following theme on crime that we have been working on, we decided to talk about the numbers gangs, which is always an interesting topic. The volunteers told the ladies the legendary history of the gangs, which they had not been aware of. Then they engaged in general discussion, covering several related topics.

After the discussion the volunteers gave the ladies hand-outs that they had prepared regarding different government subsidies that are available, the criteria that have to be met, and the application process. After this, the volunteers taught the ladies some origami, which they really enjoyed and want to show to their children.

Workshop Four – Informal Session

We had an informal session, where the ladies and volunteers engaged in conversation.

St Anne’s

Workshop One – Health

There had been a request to discuss diseases and how people may become contaminated. As at Sisters Incorporated previously, the volunteers chose to discuss HIV/Aids, tuberculosis and rabies. Their knowledge about the HIV virus was impressive, they knew slightly less about TB, and very little about rabies. The latter was chosen as there are so many stray cats and dogs in township areas, and it can be transmitted from an animal to a human through saliva.

After our discussion everyone participated in a game of Bingo.

Workshop Two – Crime

This topic was another request from the ladies; they wanted to know about crime statistics. The volunteers gathered information about crime in Cape Town – including where the hotspots are and the types of crime committed – as well as from their home countries. The ladies and volunteers all shared stories about experiences that they have suffered as a victim of criminal activity, and the women seemed interested in learning about the differences in levels and types of crime between South Africa and Europe.

Workshop Three – Prisons and Rehabilitation

The ladies at St Anne’s were equally as interested in this topic as the women had been at Sisters Incorporated. They knew a lot about the numbers gangs, and the volunteers also learned a lot from them on this topic. They were also very surprised when hearing about prisons in Europe, some of which even allow for horse riding and fishing. The discussion also touched on drugs, prostitution and trafficking. They then played the ‘Name game’, wherein you have to describe or act out a celebrity for the others to guess, which they really enjoyed.

Workshop Four – Numbers Gangs

The ladies found this topic fascinating, and they spoke for so long about it and other related issues that they spent the whole time in discussion! They shared stories about what they know, and watched a short clip from “Ross Kemp on Gangs – Pollsmoor Prison” featuring John Mongrel, a General in the 28s. They expressed interest in watching the whole documentary next time. The volunteers also provided the ladies with information on the application for government grants.

Women’s Day

Following the success of last year’s Women’s Day event, PAHRO hosted a second high-tea on Friday 8th August. The theme of 2014 was a quote from Psalm 139; “I am fearfully and wonderfully made”. The office was transformed from the busy hub that it usually is, and made for a welcoming environment. Our guests were ladies from some of our project partners, including St Anne’s, Sisters Incorporated, Philisa Abafazi Bethu, Free Gender and Siyakhatala. Once everyone had arrived and had been served with drinks by the male volunteers, who were our waiters for the afternoon, Maria welcomed everybody with the message that PAHRO acknowledges all the work that these ladies do for others, and that today was about appreciating them. As not all staff members get to interact with project partners, Maria took time to introduce all PAHOR staff and the roles they play in the office. The first serving of samoosas, pies, spring rolls and salads was then brought out, and everyone was clearly relaxed and enjoying themselves.

One of our guests, Yonelwa who works with Free Gender, an LGBTI rights advocacy group which is based in the Khayelitsha Township recited a poem about her sister. Her sister was brutally murdered on account of being lesbian. This poem is a tribute to her sister’s life as well as a battle not only a battle cry for the protection of members of the LGBTI community. Her poem was delivered with a lot of emotion and we were moved to compassion and an understanding of the loss her and her mother experienced and her anger towards a community that has rejected them.

Following our second serving, we showed the videos By Dove; Real Beauty Sketches and Always “like a Girl” We first showed these videos at the High Tea and realised it would be great to use them as an inter active tool at our projects following the positive response. The videos timed in with our theme that looked at self appreciation. We took time to mingle with the ladies and find out what they thought about the videos. The Real Beauty Sketches got the most reviews with many women stating that they would like to participate in an activity like this.

Having seen the videos, we broke into six groups, each with a volunteer appointed as leader. We discussed the question, “What lies have you been told about yourself that you believed?” It was an opportunity for volunteers to listen to the experiences of the ladies who come from different walks of life, many were truly humbled by what they heard and a little more appreciative of what they have.

After dessert, was served, we took part in a raffle, six lucky guests won prizes. The High Tea high-tea wound up with a Vote of Thanks by Sherwin. The volunteers and our guests all enjoyed the day, and we were pleased to be able to offer something back to the ladies who help so many others in their communities.

Legal Services

Maria Mulindi

Lila Kali – Refugee Case

Our client is from the DRC. He enlisted our assistance to help him with lodging his appeal as his application for refugee status was rejected.

The Refugee Status Determination Officer (RSDO) rejected his application as Unfounded submitting that the client failed to give evidence of a likelihood or fear of persecution.

The client wrote an article in a local newspaper wherein he declared that the current President of the country may have a father who was indigenous to the DRC but he himself is not really Congolese because of his upbringing. This caused a bit of a stir and the client was hunted down because of this article. The client is not a well known journalist or what could be termed as a high profile figure. However, this has heightened his fear that if he stayed in DRC he was likely to be arrested and detained without proper trial, tortured and possibly killed. His concern is that because he is not well known, no one will come to his aid or give him protection from government forces.

We prepared his Notice of Appeal, arguing that he does not have to be a high profile figure in order to fear future persecution if he returned to the DRC, we also argued that, refugees generally flee their countries of origin as such they are not in a position to go about hunting documented evidence or any other evidence for that matter in order to equip themselves to make a case for refugee status. As they are fleeing for life and limb, they will flee with the bare minimum even if it’s only the clothes on their back.

The Notice of Appeal has now been lodged and we are preparing his heads of argument for the appeal hearing, the date for which is yet to be set.

William Aherne – Unfair Dismissal

The client came to us with a claim for unfair dismissal; we then referred him to the CCMA to lodge a case as he is required to do so within 30days. When the hearing was set down at the CMMA the client attended the hearing with a friend. This friend was to assist him with proceedings as the client felt he is unable to articulate himself properly in English. At the hearing the Commissioner declined to have the client’s friend present at the hearing and the client was forced to work through the case on his own. At some point during the hearing the client was asked to step out of the hearing room while the Commissioner consulted with the employer. The contents of that meeting are unknown to our client. The client submits that a decision was made in favour of his employer on account of this meeting. We then referred the client to SASLAW with a detailed referral letter asking if they could represent the client request a review of the proceedings.

This was attended to. The client was still not satisfied with the outcome of proceedings. Therefore, we obtained a transcribed record of the proceedings on his behalf and have waded through pages of hearing documents to establish whether or not the latter commissioner was biased. We have found based on the answers to questions put to our client during the hearing, that our client clearly could not fully comprehend the questions he was asked, the latter Commissioner was constantly forced to break down/simplify questions for the client’s benefit. Despite this assistance rendered during the hearing we felt that the Commissioner also glossing over many important issues. We are aware that the client was dissatisfied with the second outcome however the transcribed record does not include the final outcome which was sent off later to the client.

We are currently in the process of collecting further details from the client in order for us to build his case and then be in a better position to assist him.

Refugee Appeal Hearing

We had a Refugee Appeal Hearing set down for the 19th August. Our client is from Zimbabwe. Her application for refugee status was denied as Unfounded. During the course of the hearing we presented our client’s case for Refugee status as credible arguing that she had a reasonable possibility of persecution due to her involvement with the MDC youth wing in Masvingo. The preparation of the hearing took a lot of time. We needed to obtained the client’s initial consultation notes from the Refugee Reception Office, finalise her Heads of Argument including relevant case law and referral to sources such as the UNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status. We then had to do research on the role of the MDC in Masvingo province and determine whether objectively the client did have a case for refugee status and thereby under what section 3 of the Refugee Act she would qualify as a refugee. We have made our case and are awaiting the outcome of the hearing.

Miriam MacDonald

Annie Javernik – Property Matter

Our client attended our office on 29/07/2014 seeking assistance with a property issue.

Our client has an eye condition, and has been almost completely blind for 35 years. In 2006, her son told her that he needed money, and our client eventually agreed to give him a loan against the house. The client’s son arranged for a meeting with an unknown female in Cape Town, our client believes to have been either a representative from the bank or a lawyer. They went to an unknown location, where our client was presented with documents to sign - given her condition, she was not sure as to the content of the papers, but placed her trust in her son. He then proceeded to take her hand and form a signature on the documents.

Following this, her son took a lot of holidays abroad. He returned in 2007, at which point he evicted his mother from the property in order to occupy it himself, along with his family. Our client was eventually moved into a small shack dwelling in the backyard, without her possessions, the majority of which her son had apparently burned. She has been living in unacceptable conditions ever since - the roof has holes in it, which has caused flooding during the recent heavy rains, and there is only one small hole for a window. Our client is a frail, elderly lady, and her health is suffering significantly.

The client does not have copies of the documents which she signed, but we have confirmed that the title deeds have now been transferred into her son's name.

We are looking into the law of contract to find out whether there may be a claim that the documents cannot be considered as legally binding. We are also researching case law to ascertain whether we can find any precedent with regards to medical conditions, i.e. blindness, that may render a contract void.

Sherwin Daniels

Criminal Law and Child Justice Department:

Bonnytoun

Continuation of July report:

Case One
Charge: Murder

On the 7th of August 2014, Sherwin and Jess Vesely attended Wynberg Regional Court on behalf of our client. All of the co-accused and their Attorneys were present, and each was asked to enter a plea. All co-accused, including our client, entered a plea of not guilty. The parties agreed on the 16th of October 2014 for the commencement of trial, until which point the matter is postponed.

Case Three
Charge: Murder

Our client had a court appearance on the 18th of August 2014, following which he has requested contact with his mother as he was not allowed to see her in court. The client turns 18 on the 10 September 2014, meaning he needn’t appear every 30 days as prescribed by the Child Justice Act. He will instead remain in custody until the 7th of October when he is next due to appear in court (along with the 10th of October). We contacted the client’s mother, who came with us on the 18th of August to Bonnytoun to see her son.

Case Five
Charge: Robbery

Our client was due to appear in Athlone court on the 1st of August 2014, but no progress in relation to his admittance to a rehabilitation centre was made and the matter was postponed until the 1st of September 2014 when the client is next due to attend. It was confirmed on a later date in August that the client was admitted to Western Cape Youth Rehabilitation Centre on the 18th of August 2014 as part of his diversion.

Case Eight
Charge: Murder

We have taken on a new murder case and on the 20th of August 2014, Sherwin and Jess Vesely went to Bonnytoun to obtain a statement from the client. The case has already gone through the lower courts and is proceeding to the first regional appearance on the 29th of August 2014.

Pollsmoor Prison:

The Criminal Justice department has done well this month, successfully finalizing and closing five cases for varying reasons. Two clients received suspended sentences, two cases were withdrawn because the state failed to complete their investigation – and the claimants in the final case withdrew charges on account of the client attending rehabilitation.

New Cases

Case One
Charge 1: House Breaking and Theft
Charge 2: Theft

On Thursday 20th August 2014, Sherwin and Jess Vesely attended Pollsmoor Prison to meet with new potential clients. They spoke to a client who had 2 separate cases – one for House Breaking & Theft and another for Theft. For the charge of house breaking and theft the client stated that his friend had given him a bag containing a Nokia phone, Vans shoes and Dolce & Gabbana perfume. He stated that his mother was disabled and therefore he needed to get money to buy her food. He sold the Nokia phone to a lady living in his street. While he was walking home he got stopped by a man from the 26 gang who told him that the goods he had been given were from his family’s shop and that he wanted it back. Our client gave back the goods to the man but he did not return it to his family, instead he sold it to buy drugs. The man told his family that our client had sold all the goods and they reported it to the police. He was arrested the next day.

While our client was in prison his neighbour filed a charge of theft against him claiming he had stolen copper pipes from his backyard. Our client claimed that he had found the copper pipes in a drum in his backyard and assumed it was his uncles as he regularly visited there with his friends. Our client therefore sold the copper pipe for R150 at a scrap yard. When the neighbour saw that the copper pipes were missing she assumed that our client had taken them. He then went to talk to his neighbours and they were very angry and attacked him with an axe, slicing his hand open. He ran away to the hospital to get stitches and now has no feeling in his hand.

The client intends to plead not guilty to both charges. We will appear in court for him on the 8th of September at which point we will request that the charges be combined in order to ensure he will not have any prior convictions should he be found guilty to either.

Case Two
Charge: Robbery (Common)

On Thursday the 21st of August 2014, Sherwin and Damian Whittle attended Pollsmoor Prison to consult with new potential clients. They spoke to a client who was being held in custody for committing common robbery. The client stated that the crime was committed in April of this year on a main road in Lansdowne. It is alleged that our client and his co-accused proceeded to rob an unknown male of his mobile phone before fleeing down the road. The client and his co-accused unsuspectedly ran into police officers who then apprehended them after noticing the complainant pursuing them. They were then taken to the police station.

For this charge the client is intending to plead guilty. The client’s bail has been set at R1000 and next court date is the 9th of September 2014.

Moot Trial Account

On Friday 8th August 2014 we took part in a moot concerning the case of our client charged with possession of presumable stolen property. He had been found by a policeman wandering around Diep River at 3.50am with a backpack containing silverware and other items of value.

Working for the prosecution, we argued that all elements of the offence were present here, as set out in the case of Osman v Attorney General Transvaal 1998. This concerned section 36 of General Law Amendment Act 62 of 1955. We submitted that the accused was guilty of the offence satisfying four grounds of the offence being that; a) the goods were found; b) they were found in possession/physical control of the accused; c) there is a very reasonable suspicion that the goods have been stolen; and d) that the accused was unable to give a satisfactory explanation of the possession.

We found it obvious that accused was in possession of the goods due to the fact that he had physical control of the goods that he was keeping in his backpack. We also submitted that there was reasonable suspicion that the goods had been stolen, and this existed at the time that the goods were found. This was partly due to the fact that he was unable to give a satisfactory account as he appeared to change his story as to where he found the goods. We used the case of People v Anderson which claims false, contradictory, or inconsistent statements point to a consciousness of guilt. We then concluded that our client was very much aware that these goods were stolen.

The defence argued that it wasn’t unusual for a homeless man to be wandering the streets at 3.50am since he has nowhere else to go. One of the requisite elements to convict of this offence was inability to give a satisfactory explanation of possession. According to Mojaki 1993 and Aube 2007, an account is actually satisfactory if (a) it is reasonably possible and (b) shows that he bona fide believed his possession was innocent, assessed subjectively (Bloem 1993). It was said our client had an honest and reasonable belief that the backpack wasn’t stolen and thus, the requisite elements to convict weren’t present, or at least weren’t present beyond all reasonable doubt.

After both arguments were put forward, it was open for the volunteers to vote guilty or not guilty. Here, the majority vote was not guilty, although the lawyers and the judges mainly voted in favour of the prosecution, guilty.

Conclusion

The office is down to 12 volunteers, this follows a busy period of hosting almost 52 volunteers at one point in time. It came with a few administrative challenges but there was a huge improvement in the work output level. Going into September we shall not be accepting new walk in clients in order to manage the casework we have already taken on.


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